Be like Mike

Gia su Mihali

Lipon, ego su stelno kapies erotisis gia ti sinedefxsi su stin Eleftherotipia, prosopikes, gia to profile su ala ke exidikevmenes, gia to VIVACE. Take your time, apadise mu opote efkerisis. ( ite se greklish ite sta aglika, opos se volevi ). Episis, boris na prosthesis otidipote epithimis ke theoris oti ine hrisimo gia to komati.

Best

Giannis.

-Aplos, Mihali, apadise oso ginete pio apla ke katanoita oste na bori na ta katalavi ke to mi epistimoniko kino. An hriaste, dose kapia paradigmata apo tin kathimerini zoi k.l.p.

PERSONAL QUESTIONS.

1) Ti se goiteve apo mikro shetika me to adikimeno pu telika spudases. Pies spudes ekanes, pote piges stin Ameriki ke gia pio logo.

Ti se goiteve apo mikro shetika me to adikimeno pu telika spudases:

Ta mathimatika kai to pathos tou Ellina gia tin thalassa.

Evriska pantote ta mathimatika efkola kai efharista. Mexri itn prwti gymnasiou itan to mono mathima – mazi me tin gymnastiki kai ta sports – pou ta ekana me megali efharistisi. Pantote epsaxna to vivlio mathimatikwn parakatw kai opote o adelfos mou diavaze mathimatika me ton patera mas pigaina kai akouga kai ta katalavaina amesws. Einai tria xromia magaliteros mou kai etsi katalava ta vasika tis algevra poli nwris. Afto einai pou mou kratise to endiaferon sta mathimatika se mia poly krisimi periodo anaptyxis tou paidiou. Se ekeini tin ilikia – telos dimotikou me arxes gymnasiou – einai I ilikia pou ta paidia hanontai gia tis thetikes epistimes stin Ameriki. Alla paidia hanontai giati den katalavainoun mathimatika kai polla giati den vriskoun endiaferon se afta pou tous didaskoun ta sxoleia stin prospathia tous na mathoun estw kai liga mathimatika se ola ta paidia.

Sto gymnasio imoun tyheros pou eixa gia daskalo sta mathimatika sto Kollegio tou Psyhikou ton Manwli Zormalia: enan afstiro, filotimo, synepestato anthropo me poly agapi gia ta paidia kai ta mathimatika. Eixe pathos na mathoume mathimatika kai poly kali matadotikotita. Ekane to mathima panta endiafron. Epipleon eixe kai poly evria geniki morfosi kai mas ekane na mi theloume na teleiwsei to mathima. Mas emathe propantwn na skeftomaste. Den mporousa na ypoferw tin papagalia. Me ton Zormalia kai ta mathimatika aneptyxa tin ikanotita/synithia – pou tin exw mexri simera – na “derive from scratch” opio theorima mou xreiazotan kai na mi anagazomai na papagalizw tipote. Afto exei to kako oti psaxnw polles fores gia lyseis se provlimata pou ta exw xanalysi all kai to kalo oti vriskw panta kainouries methodous lysis.

Pies spudes ekanes: Kai etsi pira tin katefthynsi tou polytexniou. Pira kai vraveio sto panellinio diagonismo tis Mathimatikis Etaireias. To 1970, otan imouna stin teleftaia taxi tou Lykiou anoixe I sholi nafpigwn sto EMP kai itan I pio antagonistiki. Mazi me to pathos gia tin thalassa pou eixa apo poly micros den to xanaskeftika kai tin evala prwti epilogi. Mpika prwtos stous Nafpigous EMP to 1970.

Pote piges stin Ameriki: To 1975, meta to EMP piga sto MIT me Research Assistantship kai se 4 xronia pira 2 Masters kai to PhD mou. Eidikeftika sto Masters se sygritiki meleti ploiwn and sto PhD se “off-shore engineering” se dynamiki kai ydrodynamiki exedrwn petrelaiou.

Ke gia pio logo: Stin Ameriki mporeis na vreis oti kalitero yparxei gia metaptyxiakes spoudes kai erevna. Itan ena oneiro pou to eixa valei sto mialo mou apo to prwto etos sto EMP. Stis HPA, apo tis 20 sxoles nafpigikis oi treis fimismenes pou itan se “Research Universities” itan sto MIT, to Michigan, kai to Berkeley. Me dextikan kai ta tria kai meta apo poly skepsi piga sto MIT.

2) Pos exelihtike i kariera su eki. Diakrisis, awards.

Pos exelihtike i kariera su eki. Otan teleiwsa to MIT, 27 etwn, eixe anoixi thesi stin Nafpigiki sxoli tou Michigan, ypevala ta hartia mou, edwsa seminario, kai egina amesws kathigitis. I kariera mou ekei exelixthike grigora me polles dimosiefseis, projects, kai didaktorikous spoudastes. Egina kai proedros tou tmimatos gia 9 hronia 1994-2003. Twra exw panw apo 200 meletes kai dimosiefseis kai eimai diethintis tou Ergastinpiou Thallassias Ananeoumenis Energias.

Sto diastima pou imouna proedros tou tmimatos, ola ta kala panepistimia stis USA perasan apo megalo koskinisma kai piesi gia synexi eksynxronismo, anatheorisi twn ekpedeytikwn programatwn, kai kalitero stratigiko programatismo. Afti i “endoskopisi” kai “anatheorisi” einai kati pou twra kanoun ola ta kala panepistimia, sxedon kathe xrono, se mikroteri klimaka, etsi wste na mi vrethoume pali stin idia krisi. Mia tetoia megali prospathia involves all constituencies not just the faculty and students of each Department. Students, faculty, staff, post-doctoral fellows, laboratory technicians, alumni, parents of students, faculty from other Departments, Federal and Sate research funding agencies (Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, etc), faculty from other Universities and Industry are involved in a review and planning process that takes a lot of effort over several months. Planning have lead Departments in very different directions: To Michigan epelexe na enisxisei to proptyxiako programma, na to emploutisei se evritita, and we even coined the term “Engineering for the Marine Environment” to best describe our profession. This term was adopted later by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. The decision proved to be the right one for Michigan and we thrived both in the undergraduate and graduate programs and research. MIT and UCBerkeley chose to strengthen their graduate programs and later merged with larger Departments.

Diakrisis: My peers have honored me in many ways. Egina melos sta “Editorial Boards” twn 6 pio symantikwn epistimonikwn periodikwn sto tomea mou, eimai melos tis ektelestikis epitropis of the OOAE (Ocean Offshore and Arctic Engineering) Division of ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) tis opias egina proedros 2003-2004 kai to 2005 efera stin Ellada to etisio diethnes synedrio mas. Me ton eklekto synadelfo kai filo Kathigiti tou EMP Spyro Mavrako kai tin MOEL organwsame to Synedrio sto Porto Karas.

I have participated in several research planning committees of ONR and review committees of NSF, and I have lead a multi-year multi-university/governement lab/industry research effort in advanced ship design.

Awards: Pira polla vraveia me simantikotero to Blakely-Smith Medal to 2003. It is awarded to an engineer/scientist with outstanding achievements in Ocean Engineering once every two years.

3) Pia ine i epagelmatiki / didaktiki/ panepistimiaki enasholisi su tora?

Panepistimiaki enasholisi su tora: I am the Director of the Marine Renewable Energy Laboratory which I founded about 3 years ago.

O genikos tomeas mou einai pantote “Engineering for the Marine Environment” alla i eidiki erevna pou kanw synexws allazei kai exelissetai. Presently, most of my research is in the area of harnessing the hydrokinetic energy of ocean/river currents in an environmentally sustainable way. I have invented a unique method to harness the hydrokinetic energy of even slow ocean/river currents. We are designing and testing a device, which I nick-named VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibrations for Aquatic Clean Energy). We utilize a natural and destructive instability phenomenon and enhance it rather suppressing it using passive fish-biomimetics.

In research universities in the USA, your knowledge, expertise, and research evolve gradually as engineering science evolves. Research topics or entire fields mature to the point that they are not funded any longer by Federal research agencies and/or Industry. Those fields are undertaken by development groups for software and application development and they are introduced into educational curricula. Research and funding move on to new emerging areas. In research Universities, good faculty adopt their research and teaching, develop their expertise, and contribute to the new areas. Very good faculty participate in the planning effort with Federal agencies and lead the efforts. Outstanding researchers start new areas with a breakthrough development. So, over the years, faculty change their focus several times.

Didaktiki enasholisi su tora: Ta mathimata pou didaskw einai stin perioxi tis dynamikis kai ydrodynamikis ploiwn kai thalassiwn kataskewn. Didaskw kai analytikes kai peiramatikes methodous.

Epagelmatiki enasholisi su tora: Parallila me tin panepistimiaki mou kariera, xekinisa mia erairia “Vortex Hydro Energy” me antikimeno tin meleti, ton sxediasmo, kai tin kataskevi tou VIVACE etsi wste na prowthithei stin agora san to mihanima pou tha metatrepei tin ydrokinitiki energia akomi kai argwn revmatwn potamwn kai okeanwn in an environmentally sustainable way. This means, harness clean and renewable energy with technology that does not harm the environment. For example, dams harness clean and renewable energy but they are destructive to the environment. Turbines can harness the clean and renewable hydrokinetic energy of fast flowing currents but several concerns have been raised regarding their environmental impact.

4) Pos vlepis tin katastasi ton elinikon panepistimion. Mia geniki ektimisi. Pies ine, kata tin apopsi su, i 2-3 vasikes adinamies pu prepi na diorthothun oste na veltiothi i piotita tis panepistimiakis ekpedefsis stin Elada.

First of all, I would like to emphasize that all the data I have are relevant to EMP only. Even though I am an alumnus of EMP and I have continual professional and social interaction with EMP colleagues, I am still an outsider. Dedomenou oti “Osa xerei o noikokyris den ta xerei o kosmos olos”, mporw na ekferw gnwmi alla to sigouro einai pws den exw olla ta stoixeia gia tin axiologisi tis katastasis.

Mia geniki ektimisi: We first have to establish the criteria of evaluation. Today, even more so than ever in history, not only the product market but the people-skills market have been globalized. Local issues of socio-political nature are irrelevant and transparent to the international academic community.

So, from the international point of view, the impact of a University is measured by the quality and prominence of its graduates, the scholarly publications of faculty in archival journals, its name recognition as the international leader in one or more specific frontier research areas, and its impact to Industry/market as measured by technology transfer based on patents developed in the laboratories of that university. As you can see it would take an extensive data collection and analysis process to perform a rational and reliable assessment.

So, my assessment can be partial and anecdotal at best. As Professor at a premiere research University in the USA, I observe the international impact of EMP in two ways:

(a)Students: I receive applications from EMP graduates to come to the University of Michigan for graduate studies and we admit one of their top graduates annually. They are well prepared, they work very hard, and they compete well with the best students that we admit from all the top universities in the world.

(b)Archival Journal Publications: I know several faculty members of EMP. They are good friends and colleagues, they publish on a regular basis, and work on several Greek and European joint projects. In my research I come across their publications and reference them as needed. To assess further the impact of the academic output of individual faculty, we would have to go to the citation index.

Pies ine, kata tin apopsi su, i 2-3 vasikes adinamies pu prepi na diorthothun oste na veltiothi i piotita tis panepistimiakis ekpedefsis stin Elada: Afti I erwtisi einai syntheti. Prepei pali na symfonisume sta kritiria axiologisis wste na katalavoume ti ennooume me “veltiosi poiotitas”. Monon etsi tha mporesoume na kathorisoume tous stoxous mas kai otan petyxoume aftous tous stoxous mas na axiologisoume an epetefxthei pragmati i polypothiti “veltiosi poiotitas”.

Ta kritiria pou anefera pio panw aforoun ton tropo axiologisis twn pio antagonistikwn erevnitikwn panepistimiwn stis HPA. Afta ginontai genikws apodekta ana to kosmo.

Dio themata prepei na xekatharisoume:

(a) To prwto einai an i Elliniki koinwnia – evriteri apo tin Elliniki Panepistimiaki koinotita – apodexetai afta ta kritiria. Den mporw na apantisw afti tin erwtisi ek merus tous. Tha tolmousa omws na pw oti toso I panepistimiaki koinotita oso kai I evriteri elliniki koinwnia paradexontai tin axia twn diethnwn aftwn critiriwn.

(b) To deftero einai an i axia aftwn twn kritiriwn tariazei ston Elliniko tropo zwis kai to rolo twn Ellinikwn ekpaideftikwn idrimatwn. Gia paradeigma, tha mporousate na dextheite oti i spoudastes exoun san monadiki apasxolisi tous tis spodes tous gia tis opies plirwnontai adra me ta xrimata twn forologoumenwn? Tha mporousate na dexthite oti den einai aparaitito oi apofytoi twn Ellinikwn Panepistimiwn na exoun toso megali peira stin politiki, tis sygentrwseis, kai tis diadilwseis?

As ipothesoume oti apo koinou i Panepistimiaki koinitita kai i evriteri Elliniki koinwnia apodexontai kai ensternizontai ta pio panw kritiria axiologisis tis anwtatis ekpaidefsis. Twra mporw na apantisw tin erwtisi sas:

(i)Exasfaliste stous kathigites kai stous spoudastes tin dynatotita na afierwthoun sti douleia tous. Prostatefste ton akadimaiko xwro apo parisaktous kai argosxolous. Vgalte tin politiki apo ton akathimaiko xwro.

(ii)Ensternistite tin kapws xexasmeni idea oti i morfwsi exei axia. An afto einai diskolo ypologiste to kostos tis morfwsis ana spoudasti pou plirwnei o forologoumenos. Voithiste tous spouthastes na antiliftoun poso pronomiouxoi einai pou to kratos plirwnei ta exoda tous kai oti exoun kathikon na morfothoun gia na voithisoun tin politia kai tous eaftous tous me tin morfwsi tous.

(iii)Etoimastite na synagonisteite sti pagosmiopoiimeni agora tis gnwsis. Gia paradeigma, as ypothesoume oti oi doulies routinas ginontai stis India-Kina, i anaptixi (development) stin Evrwpi-Iapwnia, kai to “frontier” tis gnwsis (basic research) ginetai stis HPA. Tote pio rolo tha thelate no paixoun oi epistimones pou vriskontai stin Ellada?

5) Poso realistiko ine na erthi kapios pu diakrinete stin Ameriki na didaxi stin Elada? Esi, ipo pies proipothesis tha erhosun na didaxis stin Elada? Yparxoun alles dynatotites gia diakekrimenous kathigites na didaxoun stin Ellada?

Afti mallon einai I pio diskoli erwtisi. I apantisi exartatai apo proswpikous kai epagelmatikous paragontes. Epagelmpatikoi paragontes sxetizontai me tin idiosygrasia tou atomou kai twn synadelfwn tou sto antistoixo Elliniko panepistimio, tin dynatotita synergasias, tin eidikotita tou atomou, tis diasyndeseis tou stin Eurwpi, to an exei megalo ergastirio pou den metaferetai efkola, tin dynatotita idrisis antistoihou ergastiriou stin Ellada, to poso evelikton einai to atomo na prosarmwstei sto tropo skeptesthai kai to eidos tis erevnas pou ginetai stin Ellada kai tin Evrwpi, kai alla polla. Proswpikoi paragontes sxetizontai me tin oikogeniaki katastasi tou atomou, ergasia syzygou, ilikia paidiwn, prooptikes sxolikwn kai panepistimiakwn spoudwn gia ta paidia, klp.

Poso realistiko ine? Mono aparithmwntas tous pio panw paragontes ftanei gia na deiliasei kapios na apotolmisei tetoio alma.

Alla as exetasoume to thema ligo pio vathia. Giati na ginei I matakinisi afti? Poios exei na ofelithei kai ti? An den dimiourgithoun oi kataliles stathers synthikes gia na yparxei makroxronio ofelos gia oles tis plevres to epixeirima tha apotyxei me poly kakes synepies kai gia tis dyo plevres tis opies exoume dei kat’epanalipsi.

As skeftoume to kalitero scenario: Mia poly kali sxoli se Elliniko panepistimio kai enas diethnws anagnwrismenos kathigitis me prwtoporiaki erevna, megalo erevnitiko eponymo programma me “quantifiable impact”, kai megalo ergastirio prospathoun na synergastoun gia na ginei to megalo alma. Gia pio logo na allaxei panepistimio aftos o kathigitis? Polles fores ginetai gia synaistimatikous logous I gia to lifestyle tis Elladas: poly megalo lathos. Gia pio logo na ton parei to Elliniko panepistimio? Polles fores ginetai gia na travixei ena megalo onoma opws ginetai se afto to epipedo syxna stis HPA. An den dimiourgithoun oi katalliles synthiskes gia epityximeni makroxronia synergasia to lathos tha einai megalo. Xwris aftes tis synthikes, o kathigitis aftos tha prosarmostei kai tha kanei oti akrivws kai oi ypoloipoi kathigites sto tmima kai den tha einai pia se thesi na prosferei sto panepistimio ta ofeli gia ta opia ton proselavan. En oligois einai poly pithanon na afomiwthei anti na voithisei stin anaptyxi pou toso to tmima oso kai o kathigitis epithymousan.

Stis HPA, se periptwsi tetoiwn metakinisewn, ginetai megali ependisi apo olla ta endiaferomena meri: To neo panepistimio ependiei se xrimata kai eponymi edra (endowed chair tis taxews twn $2,000,000), o kathigitis metaferei erevnitika programata kai erevnites tou ergastiriou tou, kai o kratikos organismos pou xrimatodotei tin erevna tou kathigiti vriskei efkairia na ananewsei to ergastirio. Etsi dimiourgountai oi kataliles synthikes gia makroxronia epityxia.

An den kanw lathos tetioi mixansmoi ependisewn then yparxoun stin Ellada i akoma kai tin Evrwpi. As thymithoume oti milame gia diakekrimenous kathigites oxi gia diakekrimenous podosferistes – ekei oi ependyseis einai poly megaliteris taxis, oi mixanismoi ependysis dokimasmenoi, kai to “rate of return on investment” mporei na ypologistei.

Dedomenis loipon tis Ellinikis pragmatikotitas kai twn dynatotitwn ependisewn stin paideia opou to “rate of return on investment” se erevna, technologia, kai paideia einai dyskolo na ypologistei oi dynatotites mias epityximenis tetoias metakinisis gia to sigekrimeno paradeigma pou exetasame einai periorismenes.

Yparxoun vevaia polla alla paradeigmata opou oi stoxoi einai mikroteroi, I apaitoumeni ependysi se xrimata kai amoivaia prospathia mikroteri, kai kata synaipia to risko mikrotero.

Esi, ipo pies proipothesis tha erhosun na didaxis stin Elada? Me ergastirio pou exei 7 didaktorikous kai 9 proptyxiakous spoudastes, polla erevnitika programmata panw sto VIVACE, tin kainouria etaireia Vortex Hydro Energy pou sxediazei kai prowthei to VIVACE, syzigo giatro me perissotero apo pliri apasxolisi, tria mikra paidia, alles dyo palaioteres etairies, ependyseis, klp, den prolavainw oute na thesw to provlima, poso mallon na vrw kairo no skeftw ti lysi se tetoio enxeirima.

Yparxoun alles dynatotites gia diakekrimenous kathigites na didaxoun stin Ellada? Panta yparxoun lyseis otan oi anthrwpoi skeftontai dimiourgika. Sti theoria veltistopoiisis, se ena provlima pou fainetai na min exei lysi, halarwnoume periorismous kai xafnika empfanizontai lyseis. Akoma kalitera, genikevoume to provlima kai vriskoume lyseis pou exypiretoun pollaplous skopous. Tote to costos moirazetai anamesa stous diaforous skopous, to kerdos afxanetai, akoma kai to risko elatwnetai. Gia paradeigma, afto ginetai otan etairies me paromoia I sygenika prointa synxonevontai. I kainouria etairia entlei gnwsi, empeiria, pelatia, proswpiko, metaforika mesa, klp kai apo tis dyo synxwnefthises etairies. To kostos elattwnetai, oi dynatotites megalwnoun, kai genikws “the economy of scales” anoigei neous orizontes kai gia tis dyo etairies.

Kati tetoio pws tha efarmozotan sta Ellinika panepistimia? As skeftoume ligo to provlima pou antimetwpisame pio panw kai den vrikame lysi. As kanoume ta exeis vimata:

(a)Na genikefsoume to provlima mipws mporesoume kai exypiretisoume pollaplous skopous. Thymosaste tis treis idees pou proteina gia na veltiwsome tin Elliniki anwtati paideia? I triti – pou gia diethni panepistimia einai i prwti – einai na proetoimastoun ta Ellinika panepistimia gia tin pagosmiopoiisi tis agoras gnwsis. Afto mporei na exipiretithei me startigiki synergasia me liga panepistimia exwterikou pou exoun tous diakekrimenous Ellines kathigites pou tha thelate na proselkisete stin Ellada.

(b)Na halarwsoume tous periorismous pou syndeontai me ton topo. O Ellinas kathigitis twn HPA den xreiazetai na einai 12 mines to xrono sto Elliniko panepiostimio, oute na didaskei ta idia mathimata me tous synadelfous tou Ellinikou panepistimiou giati tote I prosfora tou tha einai periorismeni. Mporei na vrisketai to miso xrono i ena didaktiko examino sto kathe panepistimio kai na didaskei mathima to opoio den prosferetai sto Elliniko panepistimio.

(c)Na halarwsoume tous periorismous pou sxetizontai me to costos tis ependysis kai to risko kai gia tis dyo plevres. Ayto simainei oti o kathigitis apo tis HPA den parataei to ergastirio tou kai mia zwi prospathias kai dimiourgias gia na paixei rouleta tin kariera tou xwris na xerei tis Ellinikes kai Evropaikes synthikes. Apo tin meria tou to Elliniko panepistimio den desmevei mia monimi thesi gia kapion o opoios pithanon na exei tis amfivolies tou kai ti dynatotyta na fygei kai na epanelthei stis HPA.

Ta ofeli einai pollapla:

(i)Megala ergastiria den einai anagi na metakinithoun. O kathigitis twn HPA diatirei to ergastirio tou kai Ellines spoudastes sto epipedo didaktorikou mporoun na ginoun meli aftou tou ergastiriou. To kostos mias tetoias metakinisis peftei dramatika kai agizei tis Ellinikes dynatotytes ependisis stin paideia.

(ii)Kathigites tou Ellinikou panepistimiou kai Ellines kathigites apo tis HPA mporoun na synregazontai aneta kai na epidiwkoun Europaika projects apo koinou akomi kai se synergasia me projects apo tis HPA.

(iii)Kai ta dyo panepistimia epityxhanoun kapia dynatotita xrisis ergastirwn pou den exoun kai den einai efkolo na ftiaxoun.

(iv)Oi kathigites apoktoun dynatotita na dialegoun spoudastes apo megalitero plithismo kai me pio pikiles gnwseis.

(v)Oi spoudastes exoun efkairies na gnwrisoun ti erevna ginetai stis HPA hwris na perimenoun tis dimosiefseis pou kathisteroun mexri kai dyo xronia apo tin symplirwsi tis erevnas. To prwto vima gia tin proetoimasia enwpion tis epikimenis pagosmiopoiisis exei ginei.

(vi)To risko einai kai apo tis dyo meries meiwmeno. Anoigetai i efkairia gia mia poly kali synergasia, me polla ofeli, xwris poly megali ependysi se xrima kai xrono. An gia opiondipote logo I synergasia den apovei paragwgiki mporei na diakopei apo opiadipote plevra meta tin lixi kapoiou symvolaiou synergasias.

Apo tote pou imoun proedros tou tmimatos nafpigwn sto Michigan eixa anaptyxei synergasies-kleidia me tria panepistimia prwtis klasis ena stin Notia Ameriki, Ena stin Evrwpi, kai ena stin Asia. Twra igoumai mias pio megalis prospathias mesa stis HPA na indrisoume ena ethniko kentro erevnwn anamesa sto Michigan, to UC Berkeley, to Texas A&M, kai to Florida Atlantic University me thema tin metatropi ydrokinitikis energias apo revmata, me to VIVACE san tin basiki, rizospastiki, nea technologia. Mporeite na fantastite tis dynatotites pou anoigontai kathws tha exoume stin diathesi mas to ergastirio mou sto Michgan gia piramata se modela, to megalo ergastirio sto Texas A&M gia piramata se prototypa, ti dynatotita pou prosferei to Florida Atlantic gia peiramata mesa sto revma tou Kolpou tou Mexikou, kai to ergastirio prosomoiwsis tou UC Berkeley? Kanena apo ta tessera panepistimia den tha mporouse mono tou na petyxei afto pou prospathoume san omada. Skeftite tis efkairies pou tha exoun toso oi kathigites oso kai oi spoudastes sta panepistimia mas.

6) Ti simvuli tha edines se kapion Elina spudasti pu theli na asholithi me tin erevna? Na mini stin Elada, na epidioxi na drastiriopiithi stin Ameriki, ti alo?

Kai pali prepei na xekatahrisoume dyo simeia prin mporesw na apantisw tin erwtisi sas. Prwton, ti ennoume me erevna kai gia pia morfi erevnas milame. Defteron, giati thelei na kanei erevna o spoudastis, ti thelei na kanei otan teleiwsei tin erevna, kai se pio meros tou kosmou thelei na zisei kai na egastei.

Ti simvuli tha edines se kapion Elina spudasti pu theli na asholithi me tin erevna?

As paroume dyo diaforetica scenaria:

(i)O spoudastis thelei na kanei vasiki erevna. Afti mporei na xekinaei apo kapio praktiko provlima alla i lysis tou antistoixou erevnitikou provlimatos einai simantiki apo moni tis kai oxi giati exei kapia practiki efarmogi. Oi kartikoi organismoi me to megalitero kyros (Grafeio erevnwn naytikou – ONR, ethniki ypiresia epistimwn – NSF, klp) sxedwn oloklirwtika xrimatodotoun tetoiou eidous meletes sta erevnitika panepistimia twn HPA. An o spoudastis exei skopo na ergastei se xwro panepistimiako i se erevnitiko kentro stis HPA einai aparaitito na kanei vasiki erevna.

(ii)An o spoudastis exei skopo na ergastei stin viomihania prepei na ergastei se efarmosmeni erevna opou tha yparxei kapio apotelesma pou mporei na xrisimopoieisei i viomihania. Aftou tou eidous I erevna einai pio synithismeni stin Evrwpi se diakratika programmata ervnas me pamepistimia kai viomihania.

Na mini stin Elada, na epidioxi na drastiriopiithi stin Ameriki, ti alo? To vasikotero thema einai na dialexei an thelei na kanei vasiki erevna i pio efarmosmeni. Meta na dialexei thema kai kathigiti afou psaksei poly prosektika. Kalous kathigites and themata mporei na vrei se arketa meri tis Evropis kai tis HPA. Prepei na vrei kalo kai megalo paneistimio pou mporei na tou prosferei poly megali poikilia metapyxiakwn mathimatwn, exei pollous kathigites me prwtoporiaki erevna, se polous diaforetikous tomeis. To teleftaio einai poly symantiko afou para polles megales anakalypseis ginontai pia sta synora metaxi diaforetikwn eidikotitwn (p.x. exagogi thalassias energias, ilectrologia, kai public policy on renewable energy) kai akoma perissotero sta synora metaxi diaforetikwn epistimwn (p.x. nanotechnology kai ophthalmologia, analysi diktiwn kai nevrologia). O epityhimenos erevnitis simera prepei na exei ikanotita synergasias kai epikoinwnias me epistimones allwn eidikotitwn.

7) Pia inea ta shedia su gia to melon?

Exw sygendrwsei oli mou tin energia sti erevna kai to sxediasmo tou VIVACE, toso pou exw afisei tis dyo alles periohes erevnas pou eixa anaptyxei gia polla xronia me megali epityxia. Gia ena ereviniti mihaniko to VIVACE einai ena oneiro pou ginetai pragmatikotita. Apo tin apopsi tis vasikis erevnas, epeidi einai I prwti fora pou kapoios skeftike na enisxisei anti na katasteilei tis dines kai akoma na paragei energia me tropo pou den katastrefei to perivalon, i erevna sto ergastirio mou einai toso rizospastiki, prwtoporiaki kai paragwgiki pou den prolavainoume na dimosievoume ta apotelesmata mas. Apo tin apopsi tis mixanikis, I meleti kai o sxediasmos enos mihanimatos pou na paragei kathari kai ananeoumeni energia me tehnologia pou enswmatwnetai fysika me to perivalon kai na exei plethora efarmogwn einai oti pio dimiourgiko mporw na fantastw.

QUESTIONS about VIVACE

1)Ti akrivos ine to VIVACE? Pote idrithike ke gia pius akrivos logus? Posi enerhia yparxei sto nero?

VIVACE onomasa to mihanima pou efhvra. I idea mou irthe to kalokairi tou 2004 kai to ton Noemvrio tou 2005 ypevala aitisi gia tin prwti apo tis treis patentes pou exw ypovalei mexri simera gia to VIVACE.

Ti akrivos ine to VIVACE? Einai enas fysikos tropos na metatrepoume tin ydrokinitiki energia revmatwn se mihaniki kai meta se ilectriki energia xwris na kanoume kako sto perivalon.

Energia se tetoia morfi iparxei se terasties posotites kai vrisketai plousia katanemimeni sxedon pantou opou yparxoun potamia, thalasses kai wkeanoi. Einai mia morfi energias pou tha yparxei oso yparxoun oi kiniseis tis gis, tis selinis, kai tou iliou. Einai statheri kai efkolo na provlepsoume se ti entasi tha einai diathesimi. Antitheta, i iliaki energia, i energia apo thalassia kymata kai i energia apo anemous den einai synexeis kai den mporoume na provlepsoume oute pote tha einai diathesimes oute se pia entasi. Afto eiani ena aparaitito stoixeio gia syndesi mias pigis energias me to ilektriko dyktio. Logw twn poly mikrwn dynatotitwn apothikefsis energias se mpataries I ilektriki energia einai agatho pou otan paraxthe an den xrisimopoieithei hanetai.

Dyo einai ta megala empodia pou antimetwpizei simera I tehnologia sti prospathia ekmetalefsis tis ydrokinitikis energias:

(i)Se poly liga meri ston kosmo ta revmata einai pio grigora apo 3 komvous. Oi tourmpines xreiazonti meson oro taxytitas 6 komvwn gia na paragoun energia me oikonomiki epityxia. Epi pleon dimiourgon arketa problimata sto perivalon kai tin thalassia zwi. Se oli tin voria Ameriki iparhoun mono 6 meri opu ta thalassia revmata einai toso isxira.

(ii)Ta fragmata ta opoia tosous aiwnes kataskezei o anthropos gia na damasei afti tin energia kai na tin xrisimopoieisei, molis prosfata arhisame na syneiditopoioume tin foveri katastrofi pou prokaloun stin oikologia. Stis HPA, me stathero rythmo kathe xrono katedafizontai fragmata kai epistrefetai to nero stin fysiki tou roi.

Afta ta dyo empodia antimetwpizei to VIVACE me epityxia. Alla gia na katalavoume pws mporei to VIVACE na antimetwpisei ayta ta empodia hwris na xrisimopoiei fragmata i tourmpines, prepei prwta na doume pws doulevei to kai giati kaneis den to efivre mexri simera.

To phenomeno twn talantwsewn apo dines (VIV = Vortex Induced Vibrations) eini ena fovera katastrofiko fysiko fenomeno pou paratireitai opote ena revma aera i nerou kilaei katheta ston axona enos elastikou kylindrikou swmatos apo tis mikres ines twn dixtiwn psarematos mexri exdres petrelaiou diamterou 40 metrwn. Keraies aftokinitwn, syrmata agyrwsewn, swlines se enallaktes thermotitas, ravdoi pyrinikwn kafsimwn, kontaria simaias kai ola ta elestika kylindrika swmata ypokeintai se afto to phenomeno. To kako me afto to phenomeno einai to exei poly evri fasma synchronismou kai epimenei akomi kai an I taxytita tou revmatos diplasiastei.

To fenomono VIV anaferetai stin istoria gia prwti fora stin Palaia Diathiki. Otan o vassilias David afine tin arpa tou dipla se parathyro anoikto to revma tou aera ekane tin arpa na vgazei mousikous ihous afou talantonontan oi hordes. Omws itan o Leonardo da Vinci aftos pou prwtos, to 1504, katalave oti tentomena syrmata talantountai katheta sto revma tou aera kai vgazoun notes. Tous mousikous aftous ihous tous onomase “Aiolikous Tonous”. To phenomeno egine perifimo gia tin katastreptiki tou ikanotita stis 7 Noemvriou 1940 otan i gefyra sto Tacoma Narrows stin politeia tis Washington katastrafike mesa se liga lepta tin imera twn egainiwn tis apo talantwseis pou proklithikan apo revma aeros katheto stin dievthinsi tis gefyras. To 1965, sto Ferrybridge tis Aglias treis terastioi pyrgoi psixews katastrafikan se liga lepta otan ena revema aeros fysixe katheta stin grammi twn pyrgwn. Stin thalassia mihaniki afto to provlima einai poly synithismeno kai exoun ginei xiliades dimosiefseis stin prospathia na katalavoume to phenomeno. Etsi apo to 1940 oi mihanikoi kanous systimatikes propathies na katasteiloun afto to phenomeno.

To VAVACE kanei akrivws to anapodo:

(a)Dynamwnei anti na katastrefei tis dines pisw apo ton kylindro pou prokaloun tis talantwseis.

(b)Megistopoiei anti na katastelei tis talantwseis.

(c)Mazevei tin energia apo tis talantwseis anti na tin skorpaei (diffuse).

(d)Kanei tis talantwseis aftes na arxizon se oso mikroteres taxytites ginetai kai na vastan gia oso megalyteres taxytites ginetai xrisimopoiwntas tehnikes pou mathainoume meletwntas pws ta psaria kolympan sti thalassa me megaliteri taxytita apo oti tous epitrepei i myiki tous dynami.

Etsi to VIVACE katorthwnei na mazevei tin energia akomi kai apo revmata me tahytita 1 komvou mono. Xrisimopoiwei tehnologia pou vasizetai se ena fysiko fenomeno astathias (VIV) pou peretairw enisxyetai me ixthyomimitiki. Oso gia to thema tis apothikefsis tis energias afto lynetai giati to nero einai to megalytero kai fysiko meso apothikefsis energias kai kalyptei to 73% tis epifanias to planiti mas.

Pote idrithike ke gia pius akrivos logus? Idrisa mia etairia me to onoma Vortex Hydro Energy to 2004 me ton skopo na parei afti tin theoria kaina tin kanei praxi. Na ftaixoume ena mihanima pou na mazevei afti tin kathari kai ananeoumeni energia me tropo symvivasto me to perivalon kai tin thalassia I potamisia zwi. Plirofories kai polla stoixia mporeite na vrite sto vortexhydroenergy.com. I etairia akoma vrisketai sta spargana alla kanei megales proodous.

Posi enerhia yparxei sto nero? Axizei afti I prospathia? As doume meriaka statistika stoihia. Apo ta 3,850 ZJ (1021 Joules) to xrono pou mas stelnei o ilios ta perissotera anaklwntai pisw sto diastima I aporofountai apo tin atmosfaira. 285 ZJ/xrono aporofountai apo to nero, 6 ZJ einai diathesima stous anemous, kai 1.8 ZJ aporofountai apo tin viomaza. To 2004 i synoliki katanalosi energias sto planiti mas itan 0.471 ZJ. Katalavainetai ti anektimito thisavro mas prosferei kai pali i thalassa.

2) Pos ehi adimetopisi i epistimoniki kinotita tis anakinosis sas? Pio ine to epistimoniko ala ke to business status tu VIVACE?

Pos ehi adimetopisi i epistimoniki kinotita tis anakinosis sas? I sxetiki epistimoniki koinotita exei polles plevres kai prepi na doume tin kathe mia xwrista:

(a)Organismoi xrimatodotisis: Otan arxisa afti tin erevna diapistwsa oti eixan oloi anexeretws vgalei tin ydroilektriki energia apo ti lista twn pigwn enalaktikis energias. Dyo itan oi vasikoi logoi: Prwton giati eixe apokisei poly kaki fimi logo tis perivantlogikis katastrofis pou prokaloun ta fragmata. Defteron giati kamia kainouria tehnologia den exei anaptyxthei apo ton kairo tou Arhimidi ektos apo tis propelles/tourbines pou exoun emfanistei panw apo 100 xronia. Otan omws kanw parousiaseis o enthousiasmos tous metatrepetai amesws se xrimatodotisi. Arxi egine me to Grafeio Erevnwn to Naftikou kai to Ipourgio Energias twn HPA. To prwto xrimatodotei tin vasiki ervna sto ergastirio mou – Marine Renewable Energy Laboratory – kai to deftero tin anaptyxi mesw tis etairias mou Vorthex Hydro Energy.

(b)Spoudastes: Oi neoi pou vlepoun to megethos tou provlimatos pou antimetwpizoume kai tin ragdaia exelixi twn perivantologikwn provlimatwn exoun katalavei oti prepei na antimetwpisoume to provlima tis energias amesa. O Organismos Inomenwn Ethnwn exei apofasisei oti to pio epeigon provlima tou planiti mas einai i pargogi energias me tropo diatiriteo (?? sustainable) me deftero to provlima paragogis posimou nerou. To deftoro tha lithi ama lithi to prwto kathws i posottes energias pou apaitountai gia afalatwsi nerou einai terasties. Etsi ta teleftaia 3 xronia exoun ekpaideftei 29 spoudastes se ola ta epipeda sto ergastirio mou.

(c)Epistimones sto tomea VIV: Synadelfoi mou kathigites kai erevniyes ana to kosmo exoun enthousistei me tin idea perimenontas apotelesmata kathws emeis doulevoume se diaforetiki parametriki periohi tou provlimatos alla taftohrona vgazoume apotelesmata pou den ta exoume xanadei gia vasika erevnitika themata.

(d)Epistimones sto thema tis exagogis thalassias energias: Aftoi xeroun kala ta provlimata pou yparxoun sti metatropi thalassias energias se ilectrismo kai perimenoun na doun tin anaptyxi tou prototypou. Ta 6 ergastiriaka modela pou exoume kai doulevoun den arkoun. Tin idia stasi exoun kai oi pithanoi kataskevastes tou VIVACE.

(e)Ependytes: Exome synexeis prosfores apo ependites kai proxorame se afti tin katefthinsi parallila me tin erevna sto ergastirio. Akomi den exoume dextei ependiseis. Tha protimousa na ftiaxw ena prototypo kai na to dokimasw se potamo prin prohwrisoume se megales ependyseis.

(f)To evritero koino kai parallila ta mesa mazikis enimerwsis systimatika zitan plirofories gia to xronodiagrama anaptyxis tou VIVACE.

Oloi omws stin arxi prospathousan na honepsoun tin idea kylindrwn pou kinountai katheta sto revma tou nerou. To VIVACE fenotan se olus exotiko. Otan to anteliftika afto itan efkolo na dosw exigisi. Sygekrimana, zoume sto aera. Exoume synithisei na vlepoume aerodynamikes epifanies opws ftera aeroplanwn i pouliwn i anemomilous i istia pou dinoun statheres dynameis anwsis kathetes sti roi tou refstou. Den exoume synithisei na vlepoume kylindrous pou dinoun periodikes dynameis kathetes sti roi. Omws, ama koitaxoume mesa se pikna ygra opws to nero, i fysiki eikona einai entelws diaforetiki. Oti kinitai mesa se ygro, apo to mikroskopiko sperma mexri tin terastia falena einai ena hondro swma me oura kai katalila moirasmeni epifaniaki traxytita. Etsi akrivws einai oi kylindroi to VIVACE pou talantountai katheta sto revma tou nerou. Diladi, gia ti thalassa to exotiko einai I propella kai oi tourbines kai oxi oi kylindroi tou VIVACE.

Pio ine to epistimoniko status tu VIVACE? I vasiki erevna xrimatodoteitai poly kala kai ola ta apotelesmata mexri simera einai apolytws thetika. Topothetoun tin piknotita exagogis energias me to VIVACE 2-10 fores pio ipsila apo tis alles tehnologies exagwgis energias apo tin thalasa alla vevaia poly pio katw apo tis mihanes Diesel. Eimaste twra se thesi na ftiaxoume ena prototypo me poly kales epidoseis. Symfona me tis metriseis mas sto ergastirio to kostos paragwgis – otan i anaptyxis tou VIVACE xeperasei to arhiko stadio – einai $0.055/kWh (kilovatora). Afto to kostos kanei to VIVACE antagonistiko toso me enalaktikes oso kai symvatikes morfes paragogis energias.

Tha kanoume synexws veltiwseis me vasiki kai efarmosmeni erevna gia arketa hronia. Enas apo tous logous einai oti exoume akomi arketa na mathome apo ton tropo me ton opion ta psaria kinountai sto nero kai ekmetalevontai tin energia apo dines. O allos logos einai oti to phenomeno VIV emfanizetai se oles tis klimakes kai xreiazetai diaforetiki antimetopisi merikwn provlimatwn se kathe klimaka.

Oso afora oles tin methodous exagogis energias apo tin thalassa vriskomaste ekei pou ta autokinita vriskontan pro 100 etwn, alla tha tolmousa na pw oti emeis tha exoume poly taxyteri anaptyxi tis vasikis erevnas kai tis tehnologias. Akoma to VUVACE einai poly pio aplo stin kataskevi apo tourbines kai propelles.

Pio ine to business status tu VIVACE? Vriskomaste stin “kilada tou thanatou” opws leme stin diadikasia metaforas tehnologias apo to ergastirio stin agora. Apo tin alli meria exoume pollous enthousiwdeis ypostiriktes pou theloun na doune mia tetoia anakalypsi na ginei poion. Ergazomaste me to “Detroit Wayne County Port Authority” gia na valoume ena prototypo sto potami tou Detroit. Afto einai diskolo enheirima giati o potamos exei taxytita 1.5 komvown kai kamia etairia tourmpinown den tolmise na antimetwpisei to provlima. Exome kai alles pithanes theseis gia tpothetisi tou VIVACE se potamia opwn o Niagaras pou ta revmata einai pio dynata.

3) Ti simeni epi tis usias to VIVACE, gia tis zoes ton aplon anthropon, se periptosi pu efarmostun praktika i, pros stigmin, theoritikes idees pu shetizode me afto?

Exoume perasei to stadio tis theories edw kai dyo xronia. Exoume dokimasei exi diaforetika modela sto ergastirio kai eimaste sto sxediasmou sympagwn prototypwn gia efarmoges se potamia.

To provlima tis energias pou antimetwpizoume simera einai toso piestiko kai epeigon wste prepei na anaptyxoume oles tis tehnologies pou exoun dynatotyta paragwgis ananeoumenis katahris energias se hamilo costos. To VIVACE einai sigoura ena apo ta mihanimata pou plirei oles tis proipotheseis epityxias.

Ti simeni epi tis usias to VIVACE, gia tis zoes ton aplon anthropon? Ohi mono to VIVACE alla kai opiadipote tehnologia pou plirei tis pio panw proipotheseis mporei na exei terastia synisfora stin lysi tou vasikou provlimatos tis anthropotitas. Skeftite paragogi energias xwris molynsi tis atmosfairas, xwris arnitiki epidrasi sti thalassia zwi, se stathero hamilo costos, hwris anagi metaforas ana ton kosmo mia pou yparxei pantou. Skeftite akoma efarmoges apo mikri klimaka 5-10kW se ena miko potami, pio megali klimaka 10MW apo tin thalassa gia mia koinotita i ena nisi xwris piges energias, kai akomi pio megali tis taxis twn 1000MW gia mia parathalassia politia. I piesi gia petrelaio tha elatwthei, tha kratisoume tis times pio hamiles, kai tha elatwsoume tin molysi tis atmosfairas kai to phenomeno tou thermokipiou.

4) Ti hriazete pleon gia na perasete stin praxi. Ehete vri hrimatodotes k.lp.? Pos tha «trexi» olo afto to project?

Ti hriazete pleon gia na perasete stin praxi. Ehoume na epilisoume liga tehnika provlimata akoma gia ta opia yparxoun lyseis all prepei na anaptyxthoun gia to VIVACE. To kyriotero einai to sytima metatropis tis energias apo mihaniki se ilectriki. Yparxoun polle lyseis all shediazoume mia ilektomagnitiki pou katalamvanei mikro xwro me ton Ellina synadelfo mou sto Florida Atlantic University, Niko Xiro. Meta exome polles epiloges ylikwn kai prepei na katastalaxoume se ena. Meta apo afto arxizei I synergasia me kataskevastiki etairia.

Ehete vri hrimatodotes k.lp.? Afto den fainetai na einai provlima oso kai an afto akougetai paraxeno. To thema einai pio einai xronika to simeio sto opio prepei na dextoume ependites. Pistevw molis exoume ena prototypo dokimasmena sto pragmaiko perivalon exw apo to ergastirio mas.

Pos tha «trexi» olo afto to project? Sxediasmos systimatos metatropis mihanikis se ilectriki energia, eklogi ilikwn, sxediasmos sympagous epanalamvanomenou “module”, kataskevi prototypou, peiramata prototypou sto pragmatiko perivalon. Synoliki diarkia ligotero apo dyo xronia.

5) Iparhun skepsis gia expansion tu VIVACE se evropaikes hores, tin Elada k.lp.? ( An ohi, giati? ).

Stin Elada gnorizun to project su, ehi epikinonisi kapios mazi su, ehis epikinonisi esi, tha ihe noima kati tetio i ine kati pu, os project, iperveni tis dinatotites tis horas?

Iparhun skepsis gia expansion tu VIVACE se evropaikes hores, tin Elada k.lp.? ( An ohi, giati? ). Stin Elada gnorizun to project su. Vevaia. Enas apo tous prwtos mathites mou pou doulepse sto ergastirio einai Gallos kai afou teleiwse tis spoudes tou san nafpigos stin Gallia kanei Mastrer’s se Business Administration. Mazi me ena synadelfo tou ehoun arhisei tis prospathies na antiproswpefsoun to VIVACE stin Evropi. Sto EMP yparhoun arketoi katigites pou gnwrizoun gia to VIVACE, kyriws aftoi pou einai energoi stin mihaniki thalassiwn kataskevwn opws o kos Spyros Mavrakos.

Tha ihe noima kati tetio i ine kati pu, os project, iperveni tis dinatotites tis horas? Asfalws kai exei efarmoges polles stin Ellada kai den einai kati pou ypervainei tis dynatotytes tou topou. Sto xeri mas einai na sxediasoume kati pou na tairiazei stis topikes synthikes thalassiwn revmatwn kai oikonomikwn synthikwn.

6) Pia ine ta shedia tis VIVACE gia to ameso melon?

Na prohwrisoute to taxytero dynato stin kataskevi tou prototypou etsi wste na dextoume meta ependyseis gia kataskevi monadwn paragwgis. Parallila na synexisoume tin vasiki erevna sto ergastirio mou kai ta ergastiria twn allwn triwn panepistimiwn pou anefera pio panw.

7) Giati to onomasate VIVACE? Thimizi ligo kati italiko ( cafe, estiatorio k.lp. ).

Pragmati i lexis einai Italiki kai xrisimopoieitai stin opera kai ti mousiki genikotera. Simainei zwntani/haroumeni kinisi se grigoro tempo. Etsi vlepw kai tis kiniseis twn psariwn pou mimitai to VIVACE. Taftoxrona, otan xrisimopoiisoume ta exi grammata san arxika dilwnoun akrivws afto pou kanei to VIVACE kai pws akoma to kanei VIVACE = Vortex (ek Deinwn) Induced (Prokaloumenes) Vibrations (Talantwseis) for (gia) Aquatic (Ydatini) Clean (Kathari) Energy (Energia).

8) Pia itan i arhiki idea silipsis tu olu project? Me dio logia, pos proekipse «i ebnefsi» gia kati tetio? Itan mia idea tis stgmis, itan kati pu dulevotan sto mialo su gia hronia, ipirxe kapio stihio apo tin epikerotita pu se idrigare epistimonika oste na kinithis pros afti tin katefthinsi?

Pia itan i arhiki idea silipsis tu olu project? Me dio logia, pos proekipse «i ebnefsi» gia kati tetio? Enas mathitis mou Indos ithele oposdipote na kanei to Didaktoriko tou mazi mou se solines exagogis petrelaiou kai VIV. Aftos itan enas tomeas opou eixa ergastei poly alla meta pou ekana tin vasiki erevna pou me endiefere prohwrisa se allous tomeis. Egw to pieza na koitaxoume to thema exagogis energias apo kimata kathws eiha enan episkepti kathigiti apo tin Rusia kai na kitaxoume an ypirxe kati prototypo na erevnisume. Den symfomousame alla xafnika mou irthe I empnevsi na syndiasoume ta dyo mazi. Ton esteila amesws sto Internet na psaxei oles tis piges gia patentes kai dimosievseis. Pros megali mas ekplixi kanenas den to eixe skeftei. Den milisame se kanena kai pesame me ta moutra sti doulia. Se ligous mines, meta apo pollous ypologismous, katalixame sto symperasma oti i methodos mporei na doulepsei. Amesws arxisame tin diadikasia ypovolis patentas kai ftiaxame to prwto montelo gia peiramata.

Amesws meta arxisa na organwnw to ergastirio, na vriskw xrimata gia erevna kai synergates. Prostethikas stin omada dyo ikanotatoi metaptihikoi spoudaste, mia Amerikanida kai enas axiomatikos to Israelinou naftikou. Kaname tis dyo rpwtes dimosiefseis ton Iounio tou 2006. Stim prwi parousiasi gia to VIVACE sto Amvourgo i aithousa den eixe theseis oute gia orthious.

Itan mia idea tis stgmis, itan kati pu dulevotan sto mialo su gia hronia: Pragmati i idea itan tis stigmis alla oi gnwseis proypirhan apo polla xronia. Akoma aporw pws kanenas den eixe afti tin idea symperilanomenou kai emena kathws olio prosoathousame me kathe tropo na katastiloume tis talantwseis apo dines.

Ipirxe kapio stihio apo tin epikerotita pu se idrigare epistimonika oste na kinithis pros afti tin katefthinsi? Vevaia, to thema tis energias eixe ginei pali piestiko, ohi toso stis HPA oso ston ypoloipo kosmo opou i venzini einai poli pio akrivi. Mesa se ena akomi xrono egine piestiko kai stis HPA kai arxisan megales kiniseis ependisewn se ananeoumeni energia. Omws se thalassia energia ta prwta xrimata diatethikan apo to Komgresso molis pro dyo minwn $10M gia to 2008, kai $50M gia to 2009.

Κατηγορίες: Αποκλειστικό, Καθημερινή - Ελεύθερο. Προσθήκη στους σελιδοδείκτες.

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